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Lower risk guidelines / Cannabis & Pregnancy


Maternal Health Outcomes

Did you know? Using cannabis while pregnant can increase your odds of having anemia. In fact, anemia is the most widely discussed maternal outcome in cannabis-pregnancy studies (1, 3)

What is Anemia? Click me!

Fetal Health Outcomes

Immediate outcomes

Fetuses of mothers who used cannabis during pregnancy have:

  • Low birth weights (1, 2)

  • More likely need placements in neotensive care units (1, 2)

What are the consequences of low birth weights? Click me!

Long term outcomes

Children of mothers who used cannabis during pregnancy have:

  • Increased rates of delinquency (3)

  • Increased rates of depressive symptoms (3)

  • Decreased neurocognitive functioning including attention deficits, increased impulsivity and poorer school performance (1, 3)

Cannabis Use in Breastfeeding

THC has a tendency to concentrate in breast milk due to its affinity for high fat substances. When it is passed to the baby, it can be stored in the baby's tissues for several weeks (4)

Infants exposed to THC through breast milk may experience increased tremors, slow weight gain and poor feeding in their first month of life (4)

Page References:

  1. Lower-Risk Cannabis Use Guidelines: A Comprehensive Update of Evidence and Recommendations (American Journal of Public Health) (2017). Access here

  2. Prenatal exposure to cannabis and maternal and child health outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis (BMJ). Access here

  3. The effects of prenatal marijuana exposure on delinquent behaviors are mediated by measures of neurocognitive functioning (Neurotoxicology and Teratology Journal) (2011). Access here

  4. Marijuana, Reproduction, & Pregnancy (Learn About Marijuana Fact Sheet) (2015). Access here

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